Welcome!

API Journal Authors: Rishi Bhargava, Elizabeth White, Shelly Palmer, Sematext Blog, Kevin Benedict

Related Topics: SYS-CON MEDIA, Containers Expo Blog, @CloudExpo

SYS-CON MEDIA: News Item

Cloud Computing Expo 2009 West: Call for Papers Now Closed

Industry's leading Cloud-focused Enterprise IT event returns to Silicon Valley November 2-4, 2009

With an ever-increasing number of companies now buying computing, storage, and networking power as they need it from the cloud, it is hardly surprising that SYS-CON's industry-leading International Cloud Computing Conference & Expo series is going from strength to strength.

Now held three times a year, in New York, Prague, and Silicon Valley, the organizing principle of each International Cloud Computing Conference & Expo remains the same: our aim is to ensure, through an intense and carefully chosen program of technical and strategic breakout sessions, that attending delegates leave each Conference with abundant resources, ideas and examples they can apply immediately to leveraging the Cloud, helping them to maximize performance, minimize cost and improve the scalability of their Enterprise IT endeavors.

The Call for Papers for the 4th International Cloud Computing Conference & Expo, which will be held at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, on November 2- 4, 2009, closed July 15, 2009. The Conference Theme in Santa Clara is "Bringing the Economics of the Web to Enterprise IT Through Cloud Computing."

Our aim with each conference is to showcase breakout sessions from members of every layer of the Cloud ecosystem. The submission process is 100% online and the submissions URL for the next event, in March 2010, is here.

First-rate submissions from Cloud providers and Cloud deployers are welcomed - on any and every aspect of providing or using massively scalable IT-related capabilities as a service using Internet technologies:

  • SaaS, PaaS, and IaaS
  • Automation
  • Grid Software
  • Cloud Lock-in vs Cloud Interoperability
  • Virtual Private Clouds
  • Cloud-Delivered Security
  • Elastic Computing
  • Cloud Databases
  • Scalability
  • Fabric Computing
  • Cloudbursting
  • Green IT
  • High-Performance Computing
  • Service Management
  • Web-scale Computing
  • Cloud Standards
  • Cloud Reliability
  • Secure Cloud Computing
  • Private vs Public Clouds
  • Internal Clouds
  • Cloud Applications
  • Eclipse & Cloud Computing
  • Multi-Cloud World
  • Application Portability
  • Cloudsourcing
  • Cloud-Delivered Testing
  • In-Cloud Data Encryption
  • Virtual Data Centers
  • Cloud Serviceability and Architecture
  • Cloud Management
  • Cloud Computing & SOA
  • Cloud Analytics
  • Enterprise Cloud Orchestration
  • HPC in the Cloud

SYS-CON Conferences Alumni Presents an All Star Faculty
Cloud Computing Conference & Expo, colocated with the International Virtualization Conference & Expo presented the most distinguished faculty of speakers on any technology conference taking place for the past two years. Speakers, general session and keynote presenters included such names as: Brad Abrams (Microsoft), Koen Aers (Red Hat / jBoss), Al Aghili (Managed Methods), Mehmet Akin (Sprout Systems), Dustin Amrhein (IBM), Ajay Anand (Yahoo!), Akbar Ansari (Oracle), Jean-Francois Arcand (Sun Microsystems), Anthony Arrott (Trend Micro), Matias Bagini (JRapid), Alex Bakman (VKernel), Jeffery Barr (Amazon), John Barr (Yieldex), Clod Barrera (IBM), Julio Barros (E-String Technologies), Roger Baskerville (Vizioncore), Jeff Bauer (Forbes.com), Keith Bergelt (Open Invention Network), Jerome Bernard (Elastic Grid), David Bernstein (Cisco), Ken Berryman (Symantec), Rohit Bhardwaj (Kronos), Sumeer Bhola (IBM), Tom Bishop (BMC Software), Jim Blakely (Intel), Robert Boedigheimer (Schwans),  David Boloker (IBM), Sujoe Bose (DSine Dynamics), Gregory Brail (Sonoa Systems), Brad Brech (IBM), David Bressler (Progress Software), Brad Brown (TUSC), Geoff Brown (G2One), Glenn Brunnette (Sun Microsystems, Eric Bruno (Sun Microsystems), Shane Bryzak (jBoss), Donato Buccella (Certeon), Uri Budnik (RightScale), Bob Buffone (Nexaweb), Guy Bunker (Symantec), Juan Camilo Ruiz (Oracle), Kord Campbell (Splunk), Francis Carden (OpenSpan), Michael Carey (BEA/Oracle), Tony Carrato (IBM), Marco Casario (Comtaste), Richard Cassidy (Virtual Computer), William  Cava (Ektron), Suresh Chandrasekaran (Denodo), Andre Charland (Nitobi), Stuart Charlton (Elastra), Vik Chaudhary (Keynote Systems), Robbie Cheng (Potix), Roberto Chinnici (Sun Microsystems), Jeremy Chone (Nexaweb), Jason Christensen (jason411.com),  Anthony Cincotta (Booz Allen Hamilton), Peter Coffee (SalesForce.com), Ariel Cohen (Xsigo Systems), Frank Cohen (PushToTest), Reuven Cohen (Enomaly), Jim Connors (Sun Microsystems), Andrew Conte (APC), Shawn Cooney (Certeon), Rod Cope (OpenLogic), Joshua Corman (IBM), Bill Corrigan (Neocleus), Tim Crawford (Stanford University), Douglas Crockford (Yahoo!), Paul Croft (Mediatonic),  Simon Crosby (Citrix), Richard Croucher (Citihub), Stefanos Damianakis (Netrics), Glen Daniels (WSO2), Kurt Daniels (HP / Parallels), Parand Darugar (Yahoo!), Jose de Castro (Voxeo), Jeremy Deane (Collaborative Consulting), Andy  Denmark (TripIT), Sean Derrington (Symantec), Ali Diab (AdMob), Blake Dournaee (Intel), Jon Doyle (CommuniGate), Jim Driscoll (Sun Microsystems), John du Pre Gaunt, Brian Duckering (Symantec), Nuno Duro (Evolve), Peter Eicher (FalconStor), Stephen Elliot (CA), Yakov Fain (Farata Systems), Walter Falk (IBM), John Fallows (Kaazing), Eric Farrar (Sybase iAnywhere),  William Fellows (The 451 Group), Jon Ferraiolo (OpenAjax Alliance), Jeff Fisher (Desktone), Mark Fisher (SpringSource), Chris Fleck (Citrix), Luis Font (NTR Global), Stephen Foskett (Nirvanix), Lou Fox (Bluewolf), Paul Fremantle (WSO2), Pierre Fricke (Red Hat), Phil Fritz (IBM), Shai Fultheim (ScaleMP), Kyle Gabhart (Web Age), Michael Galpin (eBay), Roberto Gamboni (AT&T), Paul Garcia-Mila (eyeOS), Owen Garrett (Zeus Technology), Andrea Gazzanigo (Funambol), Raimund Genes (Trend Micro), Pavel Georgiev (3Tera), Evan Gerber (Molecular), Rick German (Stoneware), Joshua Gertzen (Truecode), Anup Ghosh (Secure Command), Becky Gibson (IBM), Dror Gill (Ceedo), Michael Girouard (Magnani Caruso Dutton), Dan Gisolfi (IBM), Paul Giurata (Catalyst Resources), Alex Givens (UC4 Software), Ted Goddard (ICEsoft), John Goodson (DataDirect), Sue Googe (Northrop Grumman), Michael Gorman (Whitemarsh Information Systems), Andreas Grabner (dynaTrace Software), Laurie Gray (OneSpring), Eric Greenberg (Integralis), Joe Gregorio (Google), Jeremy Grelle (SpringSource), Mike Grushin (feedbackFX), Arun Gupta (Sun Microsystems), Anil Gurnani (JP Morgan Chase), Ravi Gururaj (VMLogix), Scott Guthrie (Microsoft), Robert Hagmann (Coral8), Kevin Hakman (Aptana), Wesley Hales (Red Hat), Brent Hamby (NextDB.net), Mark Hapner (Sun Microsystems), Bernd Harzog (APM Experts), Mark Heid (IBM), Geoff Hendrey (NextDB.net), Stephen Herrod (VMware), Patrick Hertzog (NEXThink), Michael Hill (IBM), Michael Ho (Quasidea), Amy Hodler (Tranxition), Billy Hoffman (HP), Kevin Hoffman (iPhone Developer's Journal), Matt Holleran (Emergence Capitals), Gordon Hunt (Real-Time Innovations), Kingsley Idehen (OpenLink Software), Martin Ingram (AppSense), Carlo Innocenti (DataDirect), Kevin Jackson (Dataline), Jonas Jacobi (Kaazing), Maneesh Jain (3PAR), Vikas Jain (Oracle), Ralph James (RSSBus), Sam Johnson (Australian Online Solutions), Christophe Jolif (ILOG), Charles Jolley (Sprout Systems), Dan Juengst (CA), Ariff Kassam (xkoto), Yehuda Katz (EngineYard), Chris Keene (WaveMaker), Charles Kendrick (Isomorphic), Patrick Kerpan (CohesiveFT), Justin Kestelyn (Oracle), Howard Kiewe (Info-Tech), Ed Kiraly (ILOG), Scott  Kirkwood (MomentumSI), Roger Kitain (Sun Microsystems), David Kleidermacher (Green Hills Software), Kristof Kloeckner (IBM), Eric Konieczny (Booz Allen Hamilton), Harald Kornmayer (NEC), Carl Kraenzel (IBM), John Krahulec (Bizwhazee), Senthil Krishanipillai (Sybase), Krishna Krishnamaneni (AT&T), Sajai Krishnan (ParaScale), Senthil Krishnapillai (Sybase), Jacek Kruszelnicki (Numatica), Mark Krzysko (US DOD), Todd Kuczaj (Accenture), Subra Kumaraswamy (Sun Microsystems), Chirs Laffra (IBM), Lynn LeBlanc (FastScale), Rich Lechner (IBM), Lars Leckie (Hummer Winbald Venture Partners), Matthew Lee (Neocleus), Felipe Leme, Patrick Leonard (Roguewave), Petri Lillberg (SSH), Jan Linden (Global IP Solutions) David Linthicum (Blue Mountain Labs), Paul Lipton (CA), Jay Litkey (Embotics), Victoria  Livschitz (Grid Dynamics), Greg Lomow (BearingPoint), Bob Lozano (Appistry), Kevin Lynch (Adobe), Jim Mackay (iTKO LISA), Susan Malaika (IBM), Peter Manca (Egenera), Anne Thomas   Manes (Burton Group), Andi Mann (Enterprise Management Associates), Diego Marino (Abiquo), Brian Martin (IBM), Steve Maryka (ICEsoft), Miko Matsumura (Software AG), Albert Mavashev (Nastel), Jamal Mazhar (Kaavo), Derek McAuley (Netronome Systems), Bill McColl (Cloudscale), David McCrory (Hyper9), Bill  McGee (Third Brigade), Mark McIlvane (Velocent), Joe McKendrick (WebServices.org), Dave Meeker (Roundarch), Mark Meeker (Orbitz), Jerry Melnick (Marathon Technologies), Darrell Meyer (ExtJS.com), Mark Milligan (VirtualLogix), Steve Milroy (OnTerra), Eric Miraglia (Yahoo!), Ashish Mohindroo (Oracle), Hezi Moore (Reflex Security), Kevin Moore (USMEPCOM), Ryan Moquin (BEA Systems), Sam Morcos (Third Brigade), JP Morgenthal (Cloud Consultant), Phil Morris (Sun Microsystems), Scott Morrison (Layer 7 Technologies), Greg Murray (Aptana), Guy Naor (Morph Labs), Tatiana Nasser Rafique (SS&C), Louis Nauges (Revevol), Mike Neil (Microsoft), Eric Newcomer (Iona Technologies), Baldwin Ng (Microsoft), Stewart Nickolas (IBM), Peter Nickolov (3Tera), Kevin Nilson (E*Trade), Johan Nordin (Volvofinans), Ken North (DataServices), Bill O'Connell (IBM), Greg O'Connor (Appzero), Ken Oestreich (Egenera), Nikita Ogievetsky (Morgan Stanley), Michael Oliver (Corent Technology), Eric Olson (MQSoftware), Emil Ong (Caucho Technology), Chris Orr (TripWire), Joshua Painter (Intel), Gerardo Pardo-Castellote (RTI), Paul Parsons (The Server Labs), Anil Patel (Harris Corporation), Parviz Peiravi (Intel), Guy Peled (Visual WebGui), Geva Perry (GigaSpaces), Harry Petty (Brocade), Joe Pezzillo (Metafy), Mike Pizzo (Microsoft), Thomas Plunkett (Virginia Tech), Adam Polansky (Travelocity), Stephen Pollack (Novell), Cornelius Pone (PPC), Olivier Poupeney (DreamFace Interactive), George Pradel (Vizioncore), Joe Preston (Momentum Design Lab), Brian Prince (Microsoft), Matt Probst (Verio), Sacheen Punde (Aeisios Corporation), Jon Pyke (Cordys), Matthew Quinlan (Appcelerator), Bob Quinn (3Leaf Systems), Hooman Radfar (Clearspring Technologies), Ranjith Ramakrishnan (Cumulux), Prasad Rampalli (Intel), Shahar Raz, Jim Reavis (Cloud Security Alliance), Scott  Regan (Sonoa Systems), Christoph Reich (Hochschule Furtwangen U), Chris Richardson, Ted Ritter (Nemertes), Jesus Rodriguez (Tellago), Dan Rosanova (Nova Enterprise Systems), Michael Rowley (Active Endpoints), Tyler Roye (mindSHIFT), Mike Ruiz (BearingPoint), Habeeb Rushdan (LowerHead Consulting), Ben Rushlo (Keynote Systems), Jim Rymarczyk (IBM), Frank Salim (Kaazing), Eric Samson (DataDirect), Jim Sanzone (VIRTERA), Bill Scarborough (VMware), Chris  Schalk (Google), Jared Scheuer (IBM), Todd Schick (ComponentOne), David  Schlesinger (Access Co.) Rich Schreiber (Nastel), Andy Schwartz (Oracle), Bill Scott (Yahoo!), Ian Selby (Gen X Design), John Senor (iWay Software), Janelle Shaw (CA), Chris Shayan, Karthik Shyamsunder (VeriSign), Michael Sick (Serene Software), Jonathan Siegal (EMC), Travis Siegfried (IBM), Ric Smith (Kaazing) David Snead (Attorney), Richard Mark Soley (OMG), Sam Somashekar (CA), Raghavan Srinivas (Sun Microsystems), Joe Stagner (Microsoft), John Stetic (Novell), Brian Stevens (Red Hat), Robert   Steward (DataDirect), Allen Stewart (Microsoft), Brian Struble (Sensedia), John Suit (Fortisphere), Ed Sullivan (Aria Systems), Ernest Svehla (IntelliObjects), Keith Swenson (Fujitsu), Dekel Tankel (GigaSpaces), Leonard Tchuta (Shanghai Property Management), Ian Thain (Sybase), Peter Thawley (Sybase), Nicholas Thomas (Finicity), Ronnie Thomson (Quark), Doug Tidwell (IBM), Shashank Tiwari (Saven Technologies), Ian Tomlin (NDMC), Omer Trajman (Vertica Systems), John Trembly (Xeround), Lars Trieloff (Day Software), Geoff Tudor (Nirvanix), Rob Tweed (M/Gateway), Tien Tzuo (Zuora), Bala Murugan Vaidhinathan (eG Innovations), Sean Valcamp (Avnet), Fred van de Bosch (Librato), Nick van der Zweep (HP), Kirstan Vandersluis (Xaware), Paul Vasquez (VMware), Butch Villaflor (Egenera), Thorsten von Eicken (RightScale), Jeff Vroom (Adobe), Bryan Wade (ExactTarget), Shaun Walker (DotNetNuke), James Ward (Adobe), Simon Wardley (Canonical), Rich Waters (ExtJS.com), Matt  Waxman (EMC), Coach Wei (Nexaweb), Julian Weinstock (Desktone), Adrian Weisberg (Takuan Consulting), Mathias Wessendorf (Oracle), Bill Westerman (Create with Context), John Whaley (Moka5), Elaine Wherry (Meebo.com), Kevin Whinnery (Appcelerator), Wallker White (BDNA), Chris Wiborg (Cisco), Scott Wiener (Cloud 9 Analytics), Warren Wilbee (Microsoft), Robert Williams (Maxworks), Ron Williams (IBM), Steve Wilson (Sun Microsystems),  Rich Wolski (UC Santa Barbara), Hon Wong, Dev Worah (Virtusa), Regev Yativ (Magic Software), Joel York (Xignite), Kareem Yusuf (IBM), and Brian Zanghi (Kadiet).

More Stories By Jeremy Geelan

Jeremy Geelan is Chairman & CEO of the 21st Century Internet Group, Inc. and an Executive Academy Member of the International Academy of Digital Arts & Sciences. Formerly he was President & COO at Cloud Expo, Inc. and Conference Chair of the worldwide Cloud Expo series. He appears regularly at conferences and trade shows, speaking to technology audiences across six continents. You can follow him on twitter: @jg21.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
The Internet of Things will challenge the status quo of how IT and development organizations operate. Or will it? Certainly the fog layer of IoT requires special insights about data ontology, security and transactional integrity. But the developmental challenges are the same: People, Process and Platform. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Craig Sproule, CEO of Metavine, demonstrated how to move beyond today's coding paradigm and shared the must-have mindsets for removing complexity from the develo...
SYS-CON Events announced today that MangoApps will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MangoApps provides modern company intranets and team collaboration software, allowing workers to stay connected and productive from anywhere in the world and from any device.
IoT is rapidly changing the way enterprises are using data to improve business decision-making. In order to derive business value, organizations must unlock insights from the data gathered and then act on these. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Hoffman, Vice President at EastBanc Technologies, and Peter Shashkin, Head of Development Department at EastBanc Technologies, discussed how one organization leveraged IoT, cloud technology and data analysis to improve customer experiences and effi...
The IETF draft standard for M2M certificates is a security solution specifically designed for the demanding needs of IoT/M2M applications. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Brian Romansky, VP of Strategic Technology at TrustPoint Innovation, explained how M2M certificates can efficiently enable confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity on highly constrained devices.
In today's uber-connected, consumer-centric, cloud-enabled, insights-driven, multi-device, global world, the focus of solutions has shifted from the product that is sold to the person who is buying the product or service. Enterprises have rebranded their business around the consumers of their products. The buyer is the person and the focus is not on the offering. The person is connected through multiple devices, wearables, at home, on the road, and in multiple locations, sometimes simultaneously...
“delaPlex Software provides software outsourcing services. We have a hybrid model where we have onshore developers and project managers that we can place anywhere in the U.S. or in Europe,” explained Manish Sachdeva, CEO at delaPlex Software, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
"We've discovered that after shows 80% if leads that people get, 80% of the conversations end up on the show floor, meaning people forget about it, people forget who they talk to, people forget that there are actual business opportunities to be had here so we try to help out and keep the conversations going," explained Jeff Mesnik, Founder and President of ContentMX, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 19th International Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world and ThingsExpo Silicon Valley Call for Papers is now open.
The IoT is changing the way enterprises conduct business. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Eric Hoffman, Vice President at EastBanc Technologies, discussed how businesses can gain an edge over competitors by empowering consumers to take control through IoT. He cited examples such as a Washington, D.C.-based sports club that leveraged IoT and the cloud to develop a comprehensive booking system. He also highlighted how IoT can revitalize and restore outdated business models, making them profitable ...
"delaPlex is a software development company. We do team-based outsourcing development," explained Mark Rivers, COO and Co-founder of delaPlex Software, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
We all know the latest numbers: Gartner, Inc. forecasts that 6.4 billion connected things will be in use worldwide in 2016, up 30 percent from last year, and will reach 20.8 billion by 2020. We're rapidly approaching a data production of 40 zettabytes a day – more than we can every physically store, and exabytes and yottabytes are just around the corner. For many that’s a good sign, as data has been proven to equal money – IF it’s ingested, integrated, and analyzed fast enough. Without real-ti...
"There's a growing demand from users for things to be faster. When you think about all the transactions or interactions users will have with your product and everything that is between those transactions and interactions - what drives us at Catchpoint Systems is the idea to measure that and to analyze it," explained Leo Vasiliou, Director of Web Performance Engineering at Catchpoint Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York Ci...
I wanted to gather all of my Internet of Things (IOT) blogs into a single blog (that I could later use with my University of San Francisco (USF) Big Data “MBA” course). However as I started to pull these blogs together, I realized that my IOT discussion lacked a vision; it lacked an end point towards which an organization could drive their IOT envisioning, proof of value, app dev, data engineering and data science efforts. And I think that the IOT end point is really quite simple…
A critical component of any IoT project is what to do with all the data being generated. This data needs to be captured, processed, structured, and stored in a way to facilitate different kinds of queries. Traditional data warehouse and analytical systems are mature technologies that can be used to handle certain kinds of queries, but they are not always well suited to many problems, particularly when there is a need for real-time insights.
Big Data, cloud, analytics, contextual information, wearable tech, sensors, mobility, and WebRTC: together, these advances have created a perfect storm of technologies that are disrupting and transforming classic communications models and ecosystems. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Erik Perotti, Senior Manager of New Ventures on Plantronics’ Innovation team, provided an overview of this technological shift, including associated business and consumer communications impacts, and opportunities it ...
You think you know what’s in your data. But do you? Most organizations are now aware of the business intelligence represented by their data. Data science stands to take this to a level you never thought of – literally. The techniques of data science, when used with the capabilities of Big Data technologies, can make connections you had not yet imagined, helping you discover new insights and ask new questions of your data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sarbjit Sarkaria, data science team lead ...
Extracting business value from Internet of Things (IoT) data doesn’t happen overnight. There are several requirements that must be satisfied, including IoT device enablement, data analysis, real-time detection of complex events and automated orchestration of actions. Unfortunately, too many companies fall short in achieving their business goals by implementing incomplete solutions or not focusing on tangible use cases. In his general session at @ThingsExpo, Dave McCarthy, Director of Products...
Is your aging software platform suffering from technical debt while the market changes and demands new solutions at a faster clip? It’s a bold move, but you might consider walking away from your core platform and starting fresh. ReadyTalk did exactly that. In his General Session at 19th Cloud Expo, Michael Chambliss, Head of Engineering at ReadyTalk, will discuss why and how ReadyTalk diverted from healthy revenue and over a decade of audio conferencing product development to start an innovati...
WebRTC is bringing significant change to the communications landscape that will bridge the worlds of web and telephony, making the Internet the new standard for communications. Cloud9 took the road less traveled and used WebRTC to create a downloadable enterprise-grade communications platform that is changing the communication dynamic in the financial sector. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Leo Papadopoulos, CTO of Cloud9, discussed the importance of WebRTC and how it enables companies to focus...
SYS-CON Events announced today that 910Telecom will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Housed in the classic Denver Gas & Electric Building, 910 15th St., 910Telecom is a carrier-neutral telecom hotel located in the heart of Denver. Adjacent to CenturyLink, AT&T, and Denver Main, 910Telecom offers connectivity to all major carriers, Internet service providers, Internet backbones and ...