Click here to close now.

Welcome!

API Journal Authors: Carmen Gonzalez, Liz McMillan, AppDynamics Blog, Vormetric Blog, Elizabeth White

Blog Feed Post

In-Memory Data Grid: Explained…

In-memory processing has been a pretty hot topic lately. Many companies that historically would not have considered using in-memory technology because it was cost prohibitive are now changing their core systems’ architectures to take advantage of the low-latency transaction processing that in-memory technology offers. This is a consequence of the fact that the price of RAM is dropping significantly and rapidly and as a result, it has become economical to load the entire operational dataset into memory with performance improvements of over 1000x faster. In-Memory Compute and Data Grids provide the core capabilities of an in-memory architecture.

The goal of In-Memory Data Grids (IMDG) is to provide extremely high availability of data by keeping it in memory and in highly distributed (i.e. parallelized) fashion. By loading Terabytes of data into memory IMDGs are able to work with most of the Big Data processing requirements today.

At a very high level IMDG is a distributed object store similar in interface to a typical concurrent hash map. You store objects with keys. Unlike traditional systems where keys and values are often limited to byte arrays or strings – with IMDGs you can use any domain object as either value or key. This gives tremendous flexibility by allowing to keep exactly the same object your business logic is dealing with in the Data Grid without the extra step of marshaling and de-marshaling alternative technologies would require. It also simplifies the usage of data grid as you can in most cases interface with distributed data store as with a simple hash map. Being able to work with domain objects directly is one of the main differences between IMDGs and In-Memory Databases (IMDB). With the latter, users still need to perform Object-To-Relational Mapping which typically adds significant performance overhead.

There are also some other features in IMDGs that distinguish them from other products, such as NoSql databases, IMDBs, or NewSql databases. One of the main differences would be truly scalable Data Partitioning across cluster. Essentially IMDGs in their purest form can be viewed as distributed hash maps with every key cached on a particular cluster node – the bigger the cluster, the more data you can cache. The trick to this architecture is to make sure that you collocate your processing with the cluster nodes where data is cached to make sure that all cache operations become local and that there is no (or minimal) data movement within the cluster. In fact, when using well designed IMDGs, there should be absolutely no data movement on stable topologies – the only time when some of the data is moved is when new nodes join in or some existing nodes leave, hence causing some data repartitioning within the cluster.

The picture below shows a classic IMDG with a key set of {k1, k2, k3} where each key belongs to a different node. The external database component is optional. If present, then IMDGs will usually automatically read data from the database or write data to it.

Another distinguishing characteristic of IMDGs is Transactional ACID support. Generally a 2-phase-commit (2PC) protocol is used to ensure data consistency within cluster. Different IMDGs will have different underlying locking mechanisms, but usually more advanced implementations will provide concurrent locking mechanisms (like MVCC – multi-version concurrency control) and reduce network chattiness to a minimum, hence guaranteeing transactional ACID consistency with very high performance.

Data consistency is one of the main differences between IMDGs and NoSQL databases. NoSQL databases are usually designed on top of Eventual Consistency (EC) approach where data is allowed to be inconsistent for a period of time as long as it will become consistent *eventually*. Generally, the writes on EC-based systems are somewhat fast, but reads are slow (or to be more precise, as fast as writes are). Latest IMDGs with an *optimized* 2PC should at least match if not outperform EC-based systems on writes, and be significantly faster on reads. It is interesting to note that the industry has made a full circle moving from a then-slow 2PC approach to the EC approach, and now from EC to an *optimized* 2PC which often is significantly faster.

Different products provide different 2PC optimizations, but generally the purpose of all optimizations is to increase concurrency, minimize network overhead, and reduce the number of locks a transaction requires to complete. As an example, Google’s distributed global database, Spanner, is based on a transactional 2PC approach simply because 2PC provided a faster and more straightforward way to guarantee data consistency and high throughput compared to MapReduce or EC.

Even though IMDGs usually share some common basic functionality, there are many features and implementation details that are different between vendors. When evaluating an IMDG product pay attention to eviction policies, (pre)loading techniques, concurrent repartitioning, memory overhead, etc… Also pay attention to the ability to query data at runtime. Some IMDGs, such as GridGain for example, allow users to query in-memory data using standard SQL, including support for distributed joins, which is pretty rare.

The typical use for IMDGs is to partition data across the cluster and then send collocated computations to the nodes where the data is. Since computations are usually part of Compute Grids and have to be properly deployed, load-balanced, failed-over, or scheduled, the integration between Compute Grids and IMDGs is very important. It is especially beneficial if both In-Memory Compute and Data Grids are part of the same product and utlize the same APIs which removes the need of integration and usually renders utmost performant and reliable systems.

IMDGs (together with Compute Grids) are used throughout a wide spectrum of industries in applications as diverse as Risk Analytics, Trading Systems, Bio Informatics, eCommerce, or Online Gaming. Essentially every project that struggles with scalability and performance can benefit from In-Memory Processing and IMDG architecture.

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Thomas Krafft

Over 15 years of experience in marketing and demand creation, with strategies driving over $500 million in revenue for a variety of companies in several high-growth and competitive markets, including consumer software and web services, ecommerce, demand creation through web and search, big data, and now healthcare.

@ThingsExpo Stories
Today air travel is a minefield of delays, hassles and customer disappointment. Airlines struggle to revitalize the experience. GE and M2Mi will demonstrate practical examples of how IoT solutions are helping airlines bring back personalization, reduce trip time and improve reliability. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Shyam Varan Nath, Principal Architect with GE, and Dr. Sarah Cooper, M2Mi’s VP Business Development and Engineering, will explore the IoT cloud-based platform technologies driving this change including privacy controls, data transparency and integration of real time context wi...
It is one thing to build single industrial IoT applications, but what will it take to build the Smart Cities and truly society-changing applications of the future? The technology won’t be the problem, it will be the number of parties that need to work together and be aligned in their motivation to succeed. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jason Mondanaro, Director, Product Management at Metanga, discussed how you can plan to cooperate, partner, and form lasting all-star teams to change the world and it starts with business models and monetization strategies.
Internet of Things is moving from being a hype to a reality. Experts estimate that internet connected cars will grow to 152 million, while over 100 million internet connected wireless light bulbs and lamps will be operational by 2020. These and many other intriguing statistics highlight the importance of Internet powered devices and how market penetration is going to multiply many times over in the next few years.
Internet of Things (IoT) will be a hybrid ecosystem of diverse devices and sensors collaborating with operational and enterprise systems to create the next big application. In their session at @ThingsExpo, Bramh Gupta, founder and CEO of robomq.io, and Fred Yatzeck, principal architect leading product development at robomq.io, discussed how choosing the right middleware and integration strategy from the get-go will enable IoT solution developers to adapt and grow with the industry, while at the same time reduce Time to Market (TTM) by using plug and play capabilities offered by a robust IoT ...
To many people, IoT is a buzzword whose value is not understood. Many people think IoT is all about wearables and home automation. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mike Kavis, Vice President & Principal Cloud Architect at Cloud Technology Partners, discussed some incredible game-changing use cases and how they are transforming industries like agriculture, manufacturing, health care, and smart cities. He will discuss cool technologies like smart dust, robotics, smart labels, and much more. Prepare to be blown away with a glimpse of the future.
The Internet of Things is not only adding billions of sensors and billions of terabytes to the Internet. It is also forcing a fundamental change in the way we envision Information Technology. For the first time, more data is being created by devices at the edge of the Internet rather than from centralized systems. What does this mean for today's IT professional? In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists addressed this very serious issue of profound change in the industry.
SYS-CON Events announced today that BMC will exhibit at SYS-CON's 16th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. BMC delivers software solutions that help IT transform digital enterprises for the ultimate competitive business advantage. BMC has worked with thousands of leading companies to create and deliver powerful IT management services. From mainframe to cloud to mobile, BMC pairs high-speed digital innovation with robust IT industrialization – allowing customers to provide amazing user experiences with optimized IT per...
There will be 150 billion connected devices by 2020. New digital businesses have already disrupted value chains across every industry. APIs are at the center of the digital business. You need to understand what assets you have that can be exposed digitally, what their digital value chain is, and how to create an effective business model around that value chain to compete in this economy. No enterprise can be complacent and not engage in the digital economy. Learn how to be the disruptor and not the disruptee.
The Internet of Things is not only adding billions of sensors and billions of terabytes to the Internet. It is also forcing a fundamental change in the way we envision Information Technology. For the first time, more data is being created by devices at the edge of the Internet rather than from centralized systems. What does this mean for today's IT professional? In this Power Panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists will addresses this very serious issue of profound change in the industry.
Business as usual for IT is evolving into a "Make or Buy" decision on a service-by-service conversation with input from the LOBs. How does your organization move forward with cloud? In his general session at 16th Cloud Expo, Paul Maravei, Regional Sales Manager, Hybrid Cloud and Managed Services at Cisco, discusses how Cisco and its partners offer a market-leading portfolio and ecosystem of cloud infrastructure and application services that allow you to uniquely and securely combine cloud business applications and services across multiple cloud delivery models.
In his General Session at 16th Cloud Expo, David Shacochis, host of The Hybrid IT Files podcast and Vice President at CenturyLink, investigated three key trends of the “gigabit economy" though the story of a Fortune 500 communications company in transformation. Narrating how multi-modal hybrid IT, service automation, and agile delivery all intersect, he will cover the role of storytelling and empathy in achieving strategic alignment between the enterprise and its information technology.
Buzzword alert: Microservices and IoT at a DevOps conference? What could possibly go wrong? In this Power Panel at DevOps Summit, moderated by Jason Bloomberg, the leading expert on architecting agility for the enterprise and president of Intellyx, panelists peeled away the buzz and discuss the important architectural principles behind implementing IoT solutions for the enterprise. As remote IoT devices and sensors become increasingly intelligent, they become part of our distributed cloud environment, and we must architect and code accordingly. At the very least, you'll have no problem fillin...
Growth hacking is common for startups to make unheard-of progress in building their business. Career Hacks can help Geek Girls and those who support them (yes, that's you too, Dad!) to excel in this typically male-dominated world. Get ready to learn the facts: Is there a bias against women in the tech / developer communities? Why are women 50% of the workforce, but hold only 24% of the STEM or IT positions? Some beginnings of what to do about it! In her Opening Keynote at 16th Cloud Expo, Sandy Carter, IBM General Manager Cloud Ecosystem and Developers, and a Social Business Evangelist, d...
Converging digital disruptions is creating a major sea change - Cisco calls this the Internet of Everything (IoE). IoE is the network connection of People, Process, Data and Things, fueled by Cloud, Mobile, Social, Analytics and Security, and it represents a $19Trillion value-at-stake over the next 10 years. In her keynote at @ThingsExpo, Manjula Talreja, VP of Cisco Consulting Services, discussed IoE and the enormous opportunities it provides to public and private firms alike. She will share what businesses must do to thrive in the IoE economy, citing examples from several industry sectors.
In his keynote at 16th Cloud Expo, Rodney Rogers, CEO of Virtustream, discussed the evolution of the company from inception to its recent acquisition by EMC – including personal insights, lessons learned (and some WTF moments) along the way. Learn how Virtustream’s unique approach of combining the economics and elasticity of the consumer cloud model with proper performance, application automation and security into a platform became a breakout success with enterprise customers and a natural fit for the EMC Federation.
SYS-CON Events announced today that the "Second Containers & Microservices Conference" will take place November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center, Santa Clara, CA, and the “Third Containers & Microservices Conference” will take place June 7-9, 2016, at Javits Center in New York City. Containers and microservices have become topics of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities.
SYS-CON Events announced today that the "First Containers & Microservices Conference" will take place June 9-11, 2015, at the Javits Center in New York City. The “Second Containers & Microservices Conference” will take place November 3-5, 2015, at Santa Clara Convention Center, Santa Clara, CA. Containers and microservices have become topics of intense interest throughout the cloud developer and enterprise IT communities.
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing IoT strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @ThingsExpo in Silicon Valley. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is as "IoT-Ready" as it can be! Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 17th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal an...
17th Cloud Expo, taking place Nov 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterprises are using some form of XaaS – software, platform, and infrastructure as a service.
The 17th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. 17th International Cloud Expo, to be held November 3-5, 2015, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, brings together Cloud Computing, APM, APIs, Microservices, Security, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportunity. Submit your speaking proposal today!