Welcome!

Cognitive Computing Authors: Liz McMillan, Pat Romanski, Yeshim Deniz, Shelly Palmer, Elizabeth White

Related Topics: @CloudExpo

@CloudExpo: Blog Post

The Economics of Big Data: Why Faster Software is Cheaper

Faster means better and cheaper - lower latency and lower cost!

In big data computing, and more generally in all commercial highly parallel software systems, speed matters more than just about anything else. The reason is straightforward, and has been known for decades.

Put very simply, when it comes to massively parallel software of the kind need to handle big data, fast is both better AND cheaper. Faster means lower latency AND lower cost.

At first this may seem counterintuitive. A high-end sports car will be much faster than a standard family sedan, but the family sedan may be much cheaper. Cheaper to buy, and cheaper to run. But massively parallel software running on commodity hardware is a quite different type of product from a car. In general, the faster it goes, the cheaper it is to run.

Time Is Money
As has been noted many times in the history of computing, if you are a factor of 50x slower, then you will need 50x more nodes to run at the same speed (even assuming perfect parallelization), or your computation will need 50x more time. In either case, it will also be much more likely that you will experience at least one of your nodes crashing during a computation. This is not to argue that automatic fault tolerance and recovery should be ignored in the pursuit of speed, but rather that these two factors need to be carefully balanced. Good design in massively parallel systems is about achieving maximum speed along with the ability to recover from a given expected level of hardware failure, via checkpointing.

The key phrase here is "a given expected level of hardware failure". In certain types of peer-to-peer services which take advantage of idle PC capacity, it is necessary to assume that all machines are extremely unreliable and may go offline at any time. However, in a commercial big data cluster it may be reasonably asssumed that almost all machines will be available almost all of the time. This means that a much more optimistic point in the design space can be chosen, one which is designed much more for speed than for pathological failure scenarios.

The MapReduce model is an example of a model where speed has been sacrificed in a major way in order to achieve scalability on very unreliable hardware. As we have noted, while this is acceptable in certain types of free peer-to-peer services, it is much less acceptable in commercial big data systems deployed at scale.

Google, the inventors of the model, were the first to recognize the throughput and latency problems with the MapReduce model. To get the realtime performance they required, they recently replaced MapReduce in their Google Instant search engine.

The MapReduce model of Apache Hadoop is slow. In fact, it's very slow compared to, for example, the kinds of MPI or BSP clusters that have been routinely used in supercomputing for more than 15 years. On exactly the same hardware, MapReduce can be several orders of magnitude slower than MPI or BSP. By using MPI rather than MapReduce, HadoopBI gives customers the best possible big data solution, not only in terms of performance - massive throughput and extremely low latency - but also in terms of economics. HadoopBI is not just the fastest Big Data BI solution, it is also the cheapest at scale.

It's Free, But Is It Fast Enough?
Another frequently misunderstood element of big data economics concerns so-called "free" software. It has been argued by some that, since big data software needs to be run on many nodes, it is really important to have software that is free. Again this is an extreme oversimplification that ignores the dominant cost issues in big data economics. At large scale, software costs will in general be much smaller than hardware or cloud costs. And commercial software vendors should ensure that they are, if they want to stay in business.

Consider the following small-scale example. A company needs to process big data continuously in order to maximize competitive advantage. For simplicity, we will assume that the cost of running a single server (in-house or cloud) for one hour is $1, and that the company has a choice between two big data software systems - system A costs $1,000 per server and system B is free, but system A is 8x faster. Choosing system A, the company requires 5 servers, working continuously, to achieve the throughput required. However, if the company chooses system B, it will require 40 servers running continuously.

Simple arithmetic shows that within just six days, the initial cost of system A has been recovered, and from then on system A gives the company massive cost savings. Even if system A is only 2x or 3x faster and more efficient than system B, the initial cost will still be recovered in a matter of a few weeks.

The economic advantages of speed at scale are magnified even more in large-scale big data systems where, with volume licensing discounts, the payback time for super-fast software is even shorter.

The lesson of the above example is simple and very important. In parallel systems, speed at scale is king, as speed equates to efficiency, and efficiency equates to massive cost savings at scale. So, to be relevant for large scale production deployments, free parallel software has to be at least as fast and efficient as the best commercial software, otherwise the economics will be solidly against it. Some examples of free software, such as the Linux operating system, have achieved this goal. It remains to be seen whether this will also be the case with highly parallel big data software. In the meantime, it's important to remember that "free software is cheap, but fast software can be even cheaper".

More Stories By Bill McColl

Bill McColl left Oxford University to found Cloudscale. At Oxford he was Professor of Computer Science, Head of the Parallel Computing Research Center, and Chairman of the Computer Science Faculty. Along with Les Valiant of Harvard, he developed the BSP approach to parallel programming. He has led research, product, and business teams, in a number of areas: massively parallel algorithms and architectures, parallel programming languages and tools, datacenter virtualization, realtime stream processing, big data analytics, and cloud computing. He lives in Palo Alto, CA.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
In a recent survey, Sumo Logic surveyed 1,500 customers who employ cloud services such as Amazon Web Services (AWS), Microsoft Azure, and Google Cloud Platform (GCP). According to the survey, a quarter of the respondents have already deployed Docker containers and nearly as many (23 percent) are employing the AWS Lambda serverless computing framework. It’s clear: serverless is here to stay. The adoption does come with some needed changes, within both application development and operations. Tha...
In his Opening Keynote at 21st Cloud Expo, John Considine, General Manager of IBM Cloud Infrastructure, will lead you through the exciting evolution of the cloud. He'll look at this major disruption from the perspective of technology, business models, and what this means for enterprises of all sizes. John Considine is General Manager of Cloud Infrastructure Services at IBM. In that role he is responsible for leading IBM’s public cloud infrastructure including strategy, development, and offering ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Taica will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. TAZMO technology and development capabilities in the semiconductor and LCD-related manufacturing fields are among the best worldwide. For more information, visit https://www.tazmo.co.jp/en/.
SYS-CON Events announced today that TidalScale will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. TidalScale is the leading provider of Software-Defined Servers that bring flexibility to modern data centers by right-sizing servers on the fly to fit any data set or workload. TidalScale’s award-winning inverse hypervisor technology combines multiple commodity servers (including their ass...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Avere Systems, a leading provider of hybrid cloud enablement solutions, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Avere Systems was created by file systems experts determined to reinvent storage by changing the way enterprises thought about and bought storage resources. With decades of experience behind the company’s founders, Avere got its ...
As hybrid cloud becomes the de-facto standard mode of operation for most enterprises, new challenges arise on how to efficiently and economically share data across environments. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Dr. Allon Cohen, VP of Product at Elastifile, will explore new techniques and best practices that help enterprise IT benefit from the advantages of hybrid cloud environments by enabling data availability for both legacy enterprise and cloud-native mission critical applications. By rev...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ryobi Systems will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Ryobi Systems Co., Ltd., as an information service company, specialized in business support for local governments and medical industry. We are challenging to achive the precision farming with AI. For more information, visit http:...
Amazon is pursuing new markets and disrupting industries at an incredible pace. Almost every industry seems to be in its crosshairs. Companies and industries that once thought they were safe are now worried about being “Amazoned.”. The new watch word should be “Be afraid. Be very afraid.” In his session 21st Cloud Expo, Chris Kocher, a co-founder of Grey Heron, will address questions such as: What new areas is Amazon disrupting? How are they doing this? Where are they likely to go? What are th...
High-velocity engineering teams are applying not only continuous delivery processes, but also lessons in experimentation from established leaders like Amazon, Netflix, and Facebook. These companies have made experimentation a foundation for their release processes, allowing them to try out major feature releases and redesigns within smaller groups before making them broadly available. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Brian Lucas, Senior Staff Engineer at Optimizely, will discuss how by using...
In this strange new world where more and more power is drawn from business technology, companies are effectively straddling two paths on the road to innovation and transformation into digital enterprises. The first path is the heritage trail – with “legacy” technology forming the background. Here, extant technologies are transformed by core IT teams to provide more API-driven approaches. Legacy systems can restrict companies that are transitioning into digital enterprises. To truly become a lead...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Daiya Industry will exhibit at the Japanese Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Ruby Development Inc. builds new services in short period of time and provides a continuous support of those services based on Ruby on Rails. For more information, please visit https://github.com/RubyDevInc.
As businesses evolve, they need technology that is simple to help them succeed today and flexible enough to help them build for tomorrow. Chrome is fit for the workplace of the future — providing a secure, consistent user experience across a range of devices that can be used anywhere. In her session at 21st Cloud Expo, Vidya Nagarajan, a Senior Product Manager at Google, will take a look at various options as to how ChromeOS can be leveraged to interact with people on the devices, and formats th...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Yuasa System will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Yuasa System is introducing a multi-purpose endurance testing system for flexible displays, OLED devices, flexible substrates, flat cables, and films in smartphones, wearables, automobiles, and healthcare.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Taica will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Taica manufacturers Alpha-GEL brand silicone components and materials, which maintain outstanding performance over a wide temperature range -40C to +200C. For more information, visit http://www.taica.co.jp/english/.
Organizations do not need a Big Data strategy; they need a business strategy that incorporates Big Data. Most organizations lack a road map for using Big Data to optimize key business processes, deliver a differentiated customer experience, or uncover new business opportunities. They do not understand what’s possible with respect to integrating Big Data into the business model.
Recently, REAN Cloud built a digital concierge for a North Carolina hospital that had observed that most patient call button questions were repetitive. In addition, the paper-based process used to measure patient health metrics was laborious, not in real-time and sometimes error-prone. In their session at 21st Cloud Expo, Sean Finnerty, Executive Director, Practice Lead, Health Care & Life Science at REAN Cloud, and Dr. S.P.T. Krishnan, Principal Architect at REAN Cloud, will discuss how they b...
Enterprises have taken advantage of IoT to achieve important revenue and cost advantages. What is less apparent is how incumbent enterprises operating at scale have, following success with IoT, built analytic, operations management and software development capabilities – ranging from autonomous vehicles to manageable robotics installations. They have embraced these capabilities as if they were Silicon Valley startups. As a result, many firms employ new business models that place enormous impor...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Dasher Technologies will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Dasher Technologies, Inc. ® is a premier IT solution provider that delivers expert technical resources along with trusted account executives to architect and deliver complete IT solutions and services to help our clients execute their goals, plans and objectives. Since 1999, we'v...
SYS-CON Events announced today that MIRAI Inc. will exhibit at the Japan External Trade Organization (JETRO) Pavilion at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MIRAI Inc. are IT consultants from the public sector whose mission is to solve social issues by technology and innovation and to create a meaningful future for people.
SYS-CON Events announced today that TidalScale, a leading provider of systems and services, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. TidalScale has been involved in shaping the computing landscape. They've designed, developed and deployed some of the most important and successful systems and services in the history of the computing industry - internet, Ethernet, operating s...